Iron Age studies in Southern Africa Download PDF EPUB FB2
The Iron Age looked different in every part of the world, but this is especially true in southern Africa. In this lesson, we'll explore this time period and see what makes it unique in world history. In East Africa people produced steel as early as BC.
In Europe, this development happened only in the s AD. Technology in Africa was therefore long advanced before the arrival of European colonisers. Image: Some Iron Age tools found in southern Africa. Source: The African Iron Age, also known as the Early Iron Age Industrial Complex, is traditionally considered that period in Africa between the second century CE up to about CE when iron smelting was practiced.
In Africa, unlike Europe and Asia, the Iron Age is not prefaced by a Bronze or Copper Age, but rather all the metals were brought together. The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of was preceded by the Stone Age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Chalcolithic) and the Bronze concept has been mostly applied to Europe and the Ancient Near East, and, by analogy, also to other parts of the Old World.
The duration of the Iron Age varies depending on the. This detailed handbook to the Iron Age covers the last 2, years in Southern Africa.
The first part of the book outlines essential topics such as settlement organization, stonewalled patterns, ritual residues, long-distance trade, and ancient by: South Africa - South Africa - The Iron Age: Because the first farmers had knowledge of ironworking, their archaeological sites are characterized as Iron Age (c.
ce). New groups of people arriving in South Africa at that time had strong connections to East Africa. They were directly ancestral to the Bantu-speaking peoples who form the majority of South Africa’s population today.
Hall, M. Tribes, Traditions and Numbers: The American Model in Southern African Iron Age Studies. South African Archaeological Bulletin Hall, Iron Age studies in Southern Africa book, and Borland., C. The Indian Connection: An Assessment of Hromnik's “Indo-Africa.”Cited by: Introduction.
Iron technology first appears in the African continent in the 1st millennium BCE, and the term Iron Age is generally used, certainly south of the Sahara, to describe iron-using communities in Africa until the modern historical thus covers a very long period of time and is used to describe a great variety of different societies, from simple village-based farmers and nomadic.
The topic of early iron metallurgy in sub-Saharan Africa encompasses both studies of the technology and archaeology of indigenous iron production, and also an understanding of the role that iron production played in African societies before European colonization.
Some evidence from historical linguistics suggests that iron smelting may have been practiced by the Nok culture of Nigeria from as. This study addresses the position of metal producers in the regional political economy of Iron Age (AD – ) communities in southern Africa through an in-depth analysis of one production Author: Thomas Huffman.
Take a quick interactive quiz on the concepts in The Iron Age in South Africa or print the worksheet to practice offline. These practice questions will help you master the material and retain the.
The first farmers in southern Africa were Bantu-speakers and archaeology shows that they entered southern Africa between 2 and 1 years ago This topic focuses on the life of the first farmers of southern Africa and the ways we can find out about them.
The term ‘Iron Age’ is a convenient label for this period, as people made tools. This Handbook is about the last years in Southern Africa. Usually, Southern Africa includes the large area south of the Zambezi and Kunene rivers.
For our purposes, however, this Handbook starts at 18degrees South and 24 degrees East, encompassing parts of ea tern Botswana and South Africa, and most of Swaziland and Zimbabwe. Mozambique is File Size: 5MB.
Mutamba is a 13th-century Iron Age settlement located in the Soutpansberg of South Africa and is contemporary with Mapungubwe, southern Africa's earliest socially complex : Thomas Huffman.
Title of a book, article or other published item (this will display to the public): Handbook to the Iron Age: the archaeology of pre-colonial farming societies in.
Book Description. Theory in Africa, Africa in Theory explores the place of Africa in archaeological theory, and the place of theory in African archaeology. The centrality of Africa to global archaeological thinking is highlighted, with a particular focus on materiality and agency in contemporary interpretation.
The data, combined with the current. This account covers the history of the African sub-continent from pre-history to the present day. It concentrates on the history of the African people of the region, showing the variety of their political organizations and the range of their economic activities both before and after European colonization.
The history of Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland and Namibia are dealt with, particularly in. The Southern African Iron Age began around 1 years ago, when the Ntu speaking (formerly known as Bantu) peoples moved into the area.
The newcomers slowly replaced the San, as they had a different lifestyle, which included pastoralism, made possible by domesticated plants and animals, whereas the San still maintained a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Southern Africa. He identified prehistoric mining as 'ancient mining', anddetected areally 'ancient' tradition and a'more modern' tradition related to 'present day natives andtheir predecessors'.
Between and ,anumber ofarchaeologists devoted their attention to the problem ofprehistoric mining inSouth Africa. Mason2, in ,investigated. In An African Classical Age, Christopher Ehret brings to light 1, years of social and economic transformation across Africa from Uganda and Kenya in the north to Natal and the Cape in the south.
The book offers a much-needed portrait of this region during a crucial period in which basic features of precolonial African societies and cultures by: Thulamela: Iron-Age Kingdom in South Africa.
By Owen in a paper published in in the Journal of Southern African Studies. gold and tin from southern Africa via the Indian Ocean trade Author: Owen Jarus.
Africa in the Iron Age is a comprehensive and authoritative introduction to African history between about B.C. and A.D. The authors are not so much concerned with a particular technological revolution as the enormous changes - political, social and economic - that took place during the period B.C.-A.D.
all over the African continent. Book Description. Alternative Iron Ages examines Iron Age social formations that sit outside traditional paradigms, developing methods for archaeological characterisation of alternative models of society.
In so doing it contributes to the debates concerning the construction and resistance of inequality taking place in archaeology, anthropology and sociology. Ethnographies from southern Africa indicate that patrilineal descent dominates Bantu-language speakers.
With great differences in material culture suggesting sociopolitical and economical changes between the earliest farmers that settled in the region in the first millennium AD and those described from ethnographies, it is very likely that descent patterns did not remain static over the Cited by: Start studying Chapter 4: The Early Iron Age in Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Unlike Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa lacks a Bronze Age, a period in which softer metals, such as copper, were made into artifacts. In Sub-Saharan Africa there is a Stone Age and an Iron Age.
Iron Age Polities. Iron Age sites yield occupational debris from Early Iron Age ( AD) and Middle Iron Age (c. AD ) down to the Late Iron Age ( AD). The Early Iron Age in central Europe, dating from c BC to c BC, is known as the Hallstatt period. Celtic migrations, beginning in the 5th cent.
BC, spread the use of iron into W Europe and to the British Isles. The Late Iron Age in Europe, which is dated from this period, is called La Tène.
The casting of iron did not become.Iron smelting and forging technologies may have existed in West Africa among the Nok culture of Nigeria as early as the sixth century B.C. In the period from toiron technology appears to have been one of a series of fundamental social assets that facilitated the growth of significant centralized kingdoms in the western Sudan and.Iron Age farmers have inhabited the eastern half of South Africa for most of the last two thousand years.
The earliest sites in the Limpopovalley are securely dated to the fourth century AD. Farmer settlements reached KwaZulu-Natal Province just a few centuries later.